Algorithm

Getting Started with AlgorithmWhat is an Algorithm?

Characteristics of Algorithm1 Topic

Analysis Framework

Performance Analysis3 Topics

Mathematical Analysis2 Topics

Sorting AlgorithmSorting Algorithm10 Topics

Searching Algorithm6 Topics

Fundamental of Data StructuresStacks

Queues

Graphs

Trees

Sets

Dictionaries

Divide and ConquerGeneral Method

Binary Search

Recurrence Equation for Divide and Conquer

Finding the Maximum and Minimum

Merge Sort

Quick Sort

Stassen’s Matrix Multiplication

Advantages and Disadvantages of Divide and Conquer

Decrease and ConquerInsertion Sort

Topological Sort

Greedy MethodGeneral Method

Coin Change Problem

Knapsack Problem

Job Sequencing with Deadlines

Minimum Cost Spanning Trees2 Topics

Single Source Shortest Paths1 Topic

Optimal Tree Problem1 Topic

Transform and Conquer Approach1 Topic

Dynamic ProgrammingGeneral Method with Examples

Multistage Graphs

Transitive Closure1 Topic

All Pairs Shortest Paths6 Topics

BacktrackingGeneral Method

NQueens Problem

Sum of Subsets problem

Graph Coloring

Hamiltonian Cycles

Branch and Bound2 Topics

0/1 Knapsack problem2 Topics

NPComplete and NPHard Problems1 Topic
Floyd’s Algorithm
FloydWarshall Algorithm is an algorithm for finding the shortest path between all the pairs of vertices in a weighted graph. This algorithm works for both the directed and undirected weighted graphs. But, it does not work for the graphs with negative cycles (where the sum of the edges in a cycle is negative).
A weighted graph is a graph in which each edge has a numerical value associated with it.
FloydWarhshall algorithm is also called as Floyd’s algorithm, RoyFloyd algorithm, RoyWarshall algorithm, or WFI algorithm.
This algorithm follows the dynamic programming approach to find the shortest paths.
Example:
Input: graph[][] = { {0, 5, INF, 10}, {INF, 0, 3, INF}, {INF, INF, 0, 1}, {INF, INF, INF, 0} } which represents the following graph 10 (0)>(3)  /\ 5     1 \/  (1)>(2) 3 Note that the value of graph[i][j] is 0 if i is equal to j And graph[i][j] is INF (infinite) if there is no edge from vertex i to j. Output: Shortest distance matrix 0 5 8 9 INF 0 3 4 INF INF 0 1 INF INF INF 0
FloydWarshall Algorithm
n = no of vertices A = matrix of dimension n*n for k = 1 to n for i = 1 to n for j = 1 to n A^{k}[i, j] = min (A^{k1}[i, j], A^{k1}[i, k] + A^{k1}[k, j]) return A
Implementation of Floyd’s Algorithm
// C Program for Floyd Warshall Algorithm
#include<stdio.h>
// Number of vertices in the graph
#define V 4
/* Define Infinite as a large enough value. This value will be used
for vertices not connected to each other */
#define INF 99999
// A function to print the solution matrix
void printSolution(int dist[][V]);
// Solves the allpairs shortest path problem using Floyd Warshall algorithm
void floydWarshall (int graph[][V])
{
/* dist[][] will be the output matrix that will finally have the shortest
distances between every pair of vertices */
int dist[V][V], i, j, k;
/* Initialize the solution matrix same as input graph matrix. Or
we can say the initial values of shortest distances are based
on shortest paths considering no intermediate vertex. */
for (i = 0; i < V; i++)
for (j = 0; j < V; j++)
dist[i][j] = graph[i][j];
/* Add all vertices one by one to the set of intermediate vertices.
> Before start of an iteration, we have shortest distances between all
pairs of vertices such that the shortest distances consider only the
vertices in set {0, 1, 2, .. k1} as intermediate vertices.
> After the end of an iteration, vertex no. k is added to the set of
intermediate vertices and the set becomes {0, 1, 2, .. k} */
for (k = 0; k < V; k++)
{
// Pick all vertices as source one by one
for (i = 0; i < V; i++)
{
// Pick all vertices as destination for the
// above picked source
for (j = 0; j < V; j++)
{
// If vertex k is on the shortest path from
// i to j, then update the value of dist[i][j]
if (dist[i][k] + dist[k][j] < dist[i][j])
dist[i][j] = dist[i][k] + dist[k][j];
}
}
}
// Print the shortest distance matrix
printSolution(dist);
}
/* A utility function to print solution */
void printSolution(int dist[][V])
{
printf ("The following matrix shows the shortest distances"
" between every pair of vertices \n");
for (int i = 0; i < V; i++)
{
for (int j = 0; j < V; j++)
{
if (dist[i][j] == INF)
printf("%7s", "INF");
else
printf ("%7d", dist[i][j]);
}
printf("\n");
}
}
// driver program to test above function
int main()
{
/* Let us create the following weighted graph
10
(0)>(3)
 /\
5  
  1
\/ 
(1)>(2)
3 */
int graph[V][V] = { {0, 5, INF, 10},
{INF, 0, 3, INF},
{INF, INF, 0, 1},
{INF, INF, INF, 0}
};
// Print the solution
floydWarshall(graph);
return 0;
}
Time Complexity
Following matrix shows the shortest distances between every pair of vertices
0 5 8 9
INF 0 3 4
INF INF 0 1
INF INF INF 0
Floyd Warshall Algorithm Complexity
Time Complexity
There are three loops. Each loop has constant complexities. So, the time complexity of the FloydWarshall algorithm is O(n^{3})
.
Space Complexity
The space complexity of the FloydWarshall algorithm is O(n^{2})
.
Floyd Warshall Algorithm Applications
 To find the shortest path is a directed graph
 To find the transitive closure of directed graphs
 To find the Inversion of real matrices
 For testing whether an undirected graph is bipartite