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Algorithm
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Getting Started with AlgorithmWhat is an Algorithm?

Characteristics of Algorithm1 Topic

Analysis Framework

Performance Analysis3 Topics

Mathematical Analysis2 Topics

Sorting AlgorithmSorting Algorithm10 Topics

Searching Algorithm6 Topics

Fundamental of Data StructuresStacks

Queues

Graphs

Trees

Sets

Dictionaries

Divide and ConquerGeneral Method

Binary Search

Recurrence Equation for Divide and Conquer

Finding the Maximum and Minimum

Merge Sort

Quick Sort

Stassen’s Matrix Multiplication

Advantages and Disadvantages of Divide and Conquer

Decrease and ConquerInsertion Sort

Topological Sort

Greedy MethodGeneral Method

Coin Change Problem

Knapsack Problem

Job Sequencing with Deadlines

Minimum Cost Spanning Trees2 Topics

Single Source Shortest Paths1 Topic

Optimal Tree Problem1 Topic

Transform and Conquer Approach1 Topic

Dynamic ProgrammingGeneral Method with Examples

Multistage Graphs

Transitive Closure1 Topic

All Pairs Shortest Paths6 Topics

BacktrackingGeneral Method

NQueens Problem

Sum of Subsets problem

Graph Coloring

Hamiltonian Cycles

Branch and Bound2 Topics

0/1 Knapsack problem2 Topics

NPComplete and NPHard Problems1 Topic
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Lesson 42 of 43
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0/1 Knapsack problem
Branch and bound is an algorithm design paradigm which is generally used for solving combinatorial optimization problems. These problems typically exponential in terms of time complexity and may require exploring all possible permutations in worst case. Branch and Bound solve these problems relatively quickly.
Let us consider below 0/1 Knapsack problem to understand Branch and Bound.
Given two integer arrays val[0..n1] and wt[0..n1] that represent values and weights associated with n items respectively. Find out the maximum value subset of val[] such that sum of the weights of this subset is smaller than or equal to Knapsack capacity W.
Let us explore all approaches for this problem.
 A Greedy approach is to pick the items in decreasing order of value per unit weight. The Greedy approach works only for fractional knapsack problem and may not produce correct result for 0/1 knapsack.
 We can use Dynamic Programming (DP) for 0/1 Knapsack problem. In DP, we use a 2D table of size n x W. The DP Solution doesn’t work if item weights are not integers.
 Since DP solution doesn’t always work, a solution is to use Brute Force. With n items, there are 2^{n} solutions to be generated, check each to see if they satisfy the constraint, save maximum solution that satisfies constraint. This solution can be expressed as tree.
 We can use Backtracking to optimize the Brute Force solution. In the tree representation, we can do DFS of tree. If we reach a point where a solution no longer is feasible, there is no need to continue exploring. In the given example, backtracking would be much more effective if we had even more items or a smaller knapsack capacity.